Work from Wherever Index

See the best countries to work from based on your time zone

Working from another country often means working from another time zone. And if your job includes calls or video meetings with colleagues in your home country, the last thing you'll want is to wake up at two in the morning to discuss work.

Before planning your journey, be sure to check the latest travel restrictions in your destination. Our travel restrictions map provides real-time updates on COVID-19 restrictions and entry requirements of individual countries around the world.Learn more

America/New York time zone: These countries are best for work and travel

The country recommendations below are based on your selected work time zone and our ranking of the best countries in the world to work from based on 22 factors. You can see country rankings based only on the factors here.

Portugal
1. Portugal
Final score: 100
Time zone: Europe/Ponta Delgada
Time difference: 4 hours ahead
Border status: Open with restrictions
Vaccination rate: 93.96%
Costa Rica
2. Costa Rica
Final score: 93
Time zone: America/San José
Time difference: 1 hour behind
Border status: Open
Vaccination rate: 77.79%
Panama
3. Panama
Final score: 92
Time zone: America/Panama City
Time difference: 0 hours
Border status: Open with restrictions
Vaccination rate: 70.31%
Spain
4. Spain
Final score: 92
Time zone: Europe/Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Time difference: 5 hours ahead
Border status: Open with restrictions
Vaccination rate: 86.71%
Malta
5. Malta
Final score: 85
Time zone: Europe/Valletta
Time difference: 6 hours ahead
Border status: Open with restrictions
Vaccination rate: 88.71%
Iceland
6. Iceland
Final score: 84
Time zone: Europe/Reykjavik
Time difference: 5 hours ahead
Border status: Open with restrictions
Vaccination rate: 82.59%
Mexico
7. Mexico
Final score: 84
Time zone: America/Cancún
Time difference: 0 hours
Border status: Open
Vaccination rate: 63.72%
Croatia
8. Croatia
Final score: 83
Time zone: Europe/Medulin
Time difference: 5 hours ahead
Border status: Open with restrictions
Vaccination rate: 55.94%
Dominica
9. Dominica
Final score: 82
Time zone: America/Roseau
Time difference: 1 hour ahead
Border status: Open with restrictions
Vaccination rate: 43.01%
Brazil
10. Brazil
Final score: 81
Time zone: America/Manaus
Time difference: 1 hour ahead
Border status: Open with restrictions
Vaccination rate: 78.30%

Work from Wherever Index

Rankings based on 22 factors

See which countries ranked the highest based on their working conditions and travel opportunities.

Work from Wherever Index - Methodology

Data in six categories has been collected in order to rank countries in terms of their attractiveness for remote work: Travel, Local prices, Health & safety, Remote work, Social life and Weather.

Within these categories, a total of 22 factors have been defined to reach a comprehensive overview of aspects that travelers may encounter and care about when deciding on the destination for remote work.


A total of 111 countries have been included in this analysis. These are the most searched destinations on our site as well as countries / territories that have announced their enhanced visa policies for remote workers.


All sources have been accessed and data retrieved between 1 September – 20 October 2021. The numbers collected are based on the latest available data. See the full list of data sources.


  1. For each of the 22 factors used to reach Country Rank, a weight indicating its importance has been assigned (1 - lowest, 5 - highest). Internet speed is regarded as one of the most important considerations, hence it has been assigned the highest weight together with the remote work visa policies. It is closely followed by factors such as apartment rental prices, local prices, political stability, LGBT equality and English proficiency. Weight 3 has been assigned to factors in the travel and weather categories, local transportation prices, air pollution exposure, car accidents, co-working spaces, social life factors such as going out possibilities, and cultural attractions.
  2. Time zone differences were given more weight and were assigned a value between 1 and 100 based on a logistic curve where each difference in time zone is given a certain score, with the highest score for destinations that are in the same time zone, and the lowest value to a time zone that is far away from the origin. The following logistic formula was applied to reach the city time zone score: = L / (1 + e^(-k*(t - t_0))), where:
    1. t is the time zone difference;
    2. L is the curve's maximum value;
    3. k is the logistic growth rate or steepness of the curve;
    4. t_0 is the t value of the sigmoids midpoint
    with values: 100 / (1 + e^(-0.75*(t - 5)))
  3. Values within each factor were firstly normalised using formulas: score = 10 * (x - min(X)) / (max(X) - min(X)) and score = 10 - 10 * (x - min(X)) / (max(X) - min(X)) for inverted values (e.g. car accidents where the lower value is better).
  4. The weighted average score of the factors has been calculated for each country.
  5. The weighted average score of the factors has been normalized using the formula score = 99 * ( ( (x - min(x) ) / ( (max(x) - min(x) ) ) + 1 to reach the Country Rank on a scale between 1 and 100 (with 1 being the lowest and 100 the highest score).
  6. The country’s final score was calculated using formula = (c + Σr)/(Σw+3) where:
    1. c is time zone score
    2. Σr is sum of all factors scores
    3. Σw is sum of all factors weights
    4. 3 is time zone weight
    and the final score score has been normalised = 99 * ( ( (x - min(x) ) / ( (max(x) - min(x) ) ) + 1

Data sources & factor definitions

Travel

The Travel category comprises four factors:

Accessibility

Defined by the weekly number of flight routes to/from the destination country.

Source: KAYAK internal data

Avg. hotel prices

Avg. hotel price per night in GBP for standard double room across all hotel types. Prices based on the search period Jan-Sept 2021 for travel period: Jan-Dec 2022.

Source: KAYAK internal data

Avg. car hire prices

Avg. prices for a car hire per day in GBP and across all vehicle classes. Prices based on the search period Jan-Sept 2021 for travel period: Jan-Dec 2022.

Source: KAYAK internal data

Fuel prices

Euro-super 95, avg. price (GBP) for 1 litre from the period 11 - 17 Oct 2021.

Source: GlobalPetrolPrices.com (Data from Oct 11- Oct 17 2021)


The Local prices category comprises four factors:

Apartment rental prices per month (avg. long-term stays)

Apartment (1 bedroom) outside of city centre, price per month (GBP).

Source: Numbeo (Sourced 20 Sept 2021)

Apartment rental prices per day (avg. short-term stays)

Avg. apartment price per night in GBP. Prices based on the search period Jan-Sept 2021 for travel period: Jan-Dec 2022.

Source: KAYAK internal data

Local transportation prices

Avg. one-way ticket price for public transport (GBP) derived from prices in available cities.

Source: Numbeo (Sourced 12 Oct 2021)

Local food prices

Avg. recommended budget per month (GBP).

Source: Numbeo (Sourced 12 Oct 2021)

Restaurant prices

Avg. price (GBP) for a meal for 2 people (three courses) in a mid-range restaurant.

Source: Numbeo (Sourced 12 Oct 2021)


The Health & safety category comprises four factors:

Political stability

Political stability and absence of violence / terrorism (percentile rank).

Source: WGI (Sourced 7 Oct 2021)

Air pollution exposure

Exposure to PM2.5, micrograms per cubic metre (2019 data).

Source: OECD

LGBT equality

Legal rights, scale 1-100 (worst-best).

Source: Equaldex (Sourced 7 Oct 2021)

Car accidents

Estimated road traffic death rate (per 100,000 population).

Source: WHO


The Remote work category comprises four factors:

Internet speed (Download)

Avg. download speed in mbps on a country level. Results based on tests from 11.04.2021 to 11.10.2021.

Source: Broadband Speed Checker

Internet speed (Upload)

Avg. upload speed in mbps on a country level. Results based on tests from 11.04.2021 to 11.10.2021.

Source: Broadband Speed Checker

Remote work visas

Information on the remote work visas is based on the information sourced from the official websites of the reviewed countries’ authorities. Source: Local & Governmental sites (Sourced: October, 2021)

Source: Local & Governmental sites

Co-working spaces

Estimated number of co-working spaces in a country (per capita).

Source: Coworker (Sourced 4 Oct 2021)


The Social life category comprises three factors:

English Proficiency Index score

The EF English Proficiency Index (EF EPI) score is based on test data from more than 2,200,000 test takers around the world who took the EF Standard English Test (EF SET) or one of EF English placement tests in 2019. Read more about the EF EPI here. For countries where an EF EPI score is not available but where the English language is an official language, the highest EF EPI score of 652 was applied.

Source: EF EPI (Accessed on 29/09/2021)

Going out

Avg. number of bars and clubs in five major cities (per 100,000 inhabitants).

Sources: Open Street Map

Culture

Avg. number of theatres, museums and galleries in five major cities (per 100,000 inhabitants).

Sources: Open Street Map


The Weather category comprises two factors:

Precipitation

Avg. monthly precipitation (in mm) throughout the year, based on major cities.

Source: Weatherbase

Temperature

Avg. monthly temperature (Celsius) throughout the year, based on major cities.

Source: Weatherbase